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Then, the study of theology and scholarship contributes much matter. Six years earlier Cardinal Adrian Castellesi in his De vera philosophia had advocated the dualistic conception of hfe, opposing reason and faith. The reason is that when Master Omnes wields the sword and makes war on the pretence that he is in the right, things fare badly."' Luther recognized the stem necessity of putting down anarchy which veiled itself under the plea of liberty of con- science. ed.) ; Kostlin-Kawerau, i, 697, 701, 714, 717, 792 ; Drews, Entsprach das Staa Ukirchentum dem Id«a U Luthers f 31 ; F. The evidence is not nearly so strong in the case of Luther, yet it might be urged in his defence, as in More's and Burin's, that had his knowledge of the facts been ample and, above all, had not his experience been cast into such a whirlpool as the ^ Feasants' Revolt, he might have arrived at conclusions far different from that of his pamphlets of 1524-5. ITiey were to be the leaven to leaven the whole lump. He beheld Saxony and he beheld the rest of Germany, but Europe as a whole escaped his vision. The fact that Luther believed in the slavery of his will to the Divine, rendered him one of the greatest forces of the period. He be Ueved in order that he might comprehend, holding that reason cannot prove spiritual matters. To the reformer it was not liberty : it was sheer licence. Hermann, Etangelische Regungen tu Maim in der erslen Zeifen der R^or- maliott, 3Q&-8 ; W. Luther regarded Thomas Miinzer's policy of revolution just as More regarded Thomas Cromwell's policy of reformation. * On the share then taken t^ the Visitation of 1537 in promoting this idea cf. The boundaries of the world were being widened on an unprecedented scale. From the Holy Roman Empire he came to see Saxony or Hesse. ; 2, 464 ; Hauarath, Luther's Leben, I, 550 : Kolde, 72 ; N. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. Oy JOHN STKVXHS " WITH PORTRAITS LONDON SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE NEW YORK; THE MACMILLAN CO. The reformer requires the certainty of his salvation, the humanist the certainty of truth. John Calvin and Calvin's precursor, Guillaume Farel, attributed his conversion to a sudden revelation. Erasmus and Rabelais were men of the Renaissance who were determined not to break with the Chtirch. 14 ; B6hmer, 135, 164, 166 ; Kolde, Friedrick der Weise. The Church with Louis XIV and with Napoleon was a department of State, just as it was in Russia down to the Revolution of March 1917. About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. 1920 i:.,g,t,.-eoi;y Go O»^lc 3R3S0 CONJUGI CARISSIMAE „Gooi^lc ^ PREFACE Thb aim nf t^fi hrvxl- » trt r onsjder the attitude o f Ry^ft Tnus and Luther to tb » Iir PH''ni fif *"'""'•="" The history of solutions ot tms problem has always fascinated me, and is never far from my thoughts. Erasmus believed in progressive, not sudden, revelations. Rabelais, however, had an interest in natural science and in nature not possessed by Erasmus : his mind was as roving as his life. On these principles the relations between Church and State in Saxony were founded.' They conceded to the sovereign the right not only of drawing up rules for the revenues of the ecclesiastical body, but also the right of drawing up rules for the constitution and for the doctrine thereof. Erasmus is quite clear that knowledge of the past and know- ledge in the past have increased. Clearly classical writers cannot solve the question. Goo»^lc THE ATTITUDE OF ERASMUS 209 Roman, and in 15 19 appeared his epigrammatic dialogue Vadiscus, which inveighs bitterly against the exactions of Rome. Long before Nicholas Copernicus, Cusanus demonstrated the fact of the earth's motion and its rotation on its axis. Luther averted the danger by Burke, Works, i, 564-5. He must preserve order, he must preserve peace in order that his message might have free course. Is he clear that fresh ideas, which the scholars of old never knew, will come to light ? They cannot, for example, tell us if the soul lives after death. Standish and Lee entirely share the attitude depicted in the tableau, so far as it concerned Luther and Hutten. Martin Luther, for I will then make a careful sketch of him and engrave it in copper, so that the memory of that Christian may long be preserved, for he has helped me out of much anxiety," In Holland he heard the rumour of the capture and disappearance of the prophet after the Diet of Worms, There is only one man living to take his place. Regiomon- taniis and Peuerbach were true scientific observers and cal- culators. With piercing insight Shakespeare writes : The heavens themselves, the planets and this centre.

We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. Erasmus strove towards some better unity of all the facts given by nature, revelation and history. Montaigne consulted his Adages, and who can measure the influence of Montaigne on the cause of freedom of thought i From the Colloquies the politiques of sixteenth-century France learnt those lessons of toleration they put into practice. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. The humanists tended so much to make reason dictator in religion that Luther desired to banish it entirely from religion. Erasmus appealed to Reuchlin, Copernicus, Vives, Sir Thomas More and Rabelais. We also ask that you: Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. As a Christian Erasmus did not believe in the natural goodness of man, though as a humanist he equally did not believe in his utter corruption. For, in spite of his limitations, he was one of the greatest of the sons of men, greater for succeeding generations than for his own. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. I am afraid these names will raise hopes the appendix will not fulfil. It is a pleasure to acknow- ledge the courtesy and care with which Mr. My wife read this volume in all its different stages, corrected errors, and suggested improvements, and to her I owe an ob Kgation which it is impossible to repay. The theology of I^uther had been formed by a blending of mysticism and Austinianism ; that of Erasmus is a blending of Churchmanship and humanity. The mind of Luther embraces God and the justification of man. THE RIFT IN THE HARMONY 95 Like Oliver Cromwe U, Erasmus's direct plans for reform, the reform of the Church, failed ; his indirect, that is his system, succeeded. ii;v C00»^IC 2S8 ERASMUS AND LUTHER thi3 was wanted." Two were to attend to material needs, and the Elector was reminded that all the monasteries and foundations had now fallen to his charge. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. DUBUN BXAUINIMG CBAPLAIN TO THE AKCHBISHOf OF DI^BUN "THX JOTIKMAI. Purser (who kindly read my proof-sheets), Sir William Ridgeway, and Sir J. I use with great profit the fine edition of the letters of Erasmus which Mr. TTie mind of Erasmus embraces this and an intellectual system as well. What keeps his memory green is the permanent stimx Uus he gave to life and thought. TTie secularization of Church property had indeed begun.^ As *' one appointed by God for the matter and empowered to act," the Elector ap- pointed the other two, who were to have a theological training for their duties of examining into the doctrine, preaching, and performance of spiritual duties.' In 1728, more than 200 years later, Rousseau enjoined upon the sovereign prince the duty of arranging the worship and fixing the amount of dogma to be received by his subjects.

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A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. The Peasants' War of 1525 would have come — in another form— if Luther had never translated the Bible. True, Luther is violent, but has he not been provoked by the violence of his enemies ? The Mazzolinis and the Alfelds merely oppose their syllogisms to solid proofs taken from the Bible. Luther's letter to Spalatin, Feb, 27, 1531, De Wette, I, p. It is in itself no small matter that his conduct is so blameless that even his enemies can find nothing with which to reproach him." * He is for the present preserving S:ace, which is ever in Erasmus's eyes the greatest of blessings, e was preserving peace, and he was also gaining disciples. From the very first there have been two tendencies in Qiristianity. The one is the Lutheran type just as much as the other is the Erasmian type. Erasmus saw neither Germany, nor France, nor Spain, nor Italy, nor England, but the whole of Europe. Standing aloof, like Fontenelle and Goethe, from the great causes that throbbed through the world of his day, Erasmus looked on not unmoved, but drew aside from the swift-flowing * Erasmus's letter to Pirkheimer, Oct. What appeal could it make to the peasant f Erasmus had the freest of minds, the broadest of outlooks. Princes, like John of Saxony and Philip of Hesse, warmly endorsed the opinion he expressed in 1526 that where there was no such uniformity there would always be sects and revolts.