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Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar.Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.).After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies.In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor.It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.
Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he initially opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.
He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.
Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of the State").
The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.
He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.